Our Authors

In the 15 years of its existence, many practitioners and scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, backgrounds and countries have contributed to the Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Here are their short biographies.

Dekha Ibrahim Abdi was an independent consultant based in Mombasa, Kenya, with over fifteen years of experience advising and working in peace and conflict transformation. In 2007 she was honoured for her work with the Alternative Nobel Prize, one year later she received the Rotary Award for her contribution to peace in Kenya during the post-election violence. In the 1990s, she was active in Wajir as one of the founders of a peace initiative, mediating between people of the warring clans to end civil war. She had been working on developing a Peace Education resource guide for a variety of audiences from kindergarten to university, including community groups as well as policy makers. Dekha Ibrahim Abdi passed away in July 2011. (Last updated: July 2011.)

Mary B. Anderson is President of Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA) based in Cambridge, USA. She is an economist who specialises in promoting development strategies that originate in an assessment of existing local, national capacities. She has worked with many multi-lateral, bi-lateral and local development agencies in the areas of gender analysis, education and education policy, refugee programming, and disaster prevention, mitigation and development. Since 1995, she has launched and directed CDA's Local Capacities for Peace Project to learn more about the relationships between humanitarian and development assistance and conflict. She authored "Do No Harm: How Aid can Support Peace or War" (Lynne Rienner, 1999), which sets out the lessons learned from the Local Capacities for Peace Project. She also organised the Reflecting on Peace Practice Project (RPP) and, together with Lara Olson, summarised the findings of RPP in the study "Confronting War: Critical Lessons for Peace Practitioners" (CDA, 2003). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Bernardo Arévalo de León is Senior Peacebuilding Advisor in Interpeace’s International Peacebuilding Advisory Team (IPAT). Bernardo has been involved and working with Interpeace since 1996. Between 1996 and 1998 he was involved in managing a consensus building process in his native Guatemala, following the signature of the Peace Accords. Between 1999 and 2005 Bernardo coordinated a series of joint UNDP-Interpeace initiatives that applied participatory strategies to Security Sector Reform goals, first as Director of one of the projects and later as the head of Interpeace’s regional office for Latin America. Between 2005 and 2011, he was the Director of the Joint Program Unit for UN/Interpeace Initiatives of UNOPS, a joint program established by the UN and Interpeace as a way to support UN field operations in the use of research-based dialogue strategies for the consolidation of peace and prevention of conflict, and supervised operations in Israel, Palestine, Cyprus and Liberia. Between 2011 and 2013, he served as Deputy Director-General, Research and Development, for Interpeace. Prior to his involvement with Interpeace, Bernardo served in Guatemala’s Foreign Service for over 12 years, including as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and as Ambassador to Spain.

Bernardo holds a Ph.D. from Utrecht University (2015) and did graduate and post-graduate studies at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He is the author of several articles and books on issues such as democratisation, civil-military relations and peacebuilding. His latest publication is "De la Milicia Colonial al Ejército Contrainsurgente: Violencia, Formación Estatal y Ejército en Guatemala, 1500-1963" (F&G Editores, Guatemala 2016). Together with Ana Glenda Tager, he has authored: "From Project to Process: POLSEDE, Civil Society and Security Sector Reform in Guatemala", in: David Cortright (ed.) Strengthening Peacebuilding Policy through Civil Society Empowerment (Kroc Institute for International Studies. Notre Dame University 2016); "El Salvador: Negotiating with Gangs", co-authored with Isabel Aguilar Umaña (Accord, Conciliation Resources, 2014); and "Central America: a Peacebuilding Agenda beyond Post-Conflict" (Geneva Peacebuilding Platform 2015). (As at: Nov 2016.)

Olu Arowobusoye is a former Nigerian career diplomat. He has worked with International Alert and Comic Relief in the UK, before taking up his current position as the Director of Humanitarian Affairs at the Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary for Political Affairs, Defence and Security of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). (As at: March 2006.)

Alexander Austin works as an independent consultant and analyst in peace and conflict management. His areas of interest are transnational organised crime, human trafficking and drugs in relation to dynamics of ethnopolitical conflict. In addition, he is interested in exploring the unique roles and responsibilities of different actors all working towards the constructive transformation of conflict. He has worked for various organisations, including the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (UK), the German development agency GTZ and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Most recently, he served as Programme Manager for Network Building and Regional Liaison with a focus on Eastern and Southeast Europe with the European Centre for Conflict Prevention in The Hague, Netherlands. (Last updated: Oct 2009.)

Muhammad Najib Azca is a Lecturer at the Department of Sociology, University of Gadjah Mada (UGM) in Indonesia and researcher at UGM's Center for Security and Peace Studies (CSPS). He recently completed his MA at the Southeast Asia Graduate Program, Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University (ANU), Canberra. The title of his thesis is "The Role of the Security Forces in Communal Conflict: The Case of Ambon". He is also the author of "Hegemoni Tentara (The Hegemony of the Military)" (LkiS 1998). His article (co-authored with Mohtar Mas’oed and Rizal Panggabean) "Social resources for civility and participation: The case of Yogyakarta, Indonesia" was published in "The Politics of Multiculturalism: Pluralism and Citizenship in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia" edited by Robert W. Hefner (University of Hawaii, 2001). As a former journalist, he worked for many years at DeTIK weekly, and as part time editor of Adil Weekly and DeTAK weekly. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Eileen F. Babbitt is Professor of International Conflict Management Practice, director of the International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Program and co-director of the Program on Human Rights and Conflict Resolution at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, USA. She is also a faculty associate of the Program on Negotiation at the Harvard Law School. Dr Babbitt’s latest publications include "Human Rights and Conflict Resolution in Context: Colombia, Sierra Leone, and Northern Ireland" (Syracuse University Press, 2009), co-edited with Ellen Lutz; and "Negotiating Self-Determination" (Lexington Books, 2007), co-edited with Hurst Hannum. She holds a master’s degree in Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. (As at: May 2010.)

Günther Baechler currently serves as a Special Adviser for Peace Building in Sudan and most recently served as a Special Adviser for Peace Building in Nepal for the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. He studied art and history of art in Basel, Switzerland and political science at the Free University of Berlin, Germany. He was a research fellow at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Studies at the University of Hamburg, Germany and completed his PhD in political science in 1997 (University of Bremen, Germany). In 1988, he became Director of the Swiss Peace Foundation, while working part-time as a researcher at the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Analysis at the ETH Zurich. In 1996, he was a visiting research fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs (CSIA) at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA. He also received training in mediation and negotiation at the Harvard Negotiation Program and at the Center for Dispute Settlement in Cambridge, USA. Before accepting his Special Adviser posts, he was Director of the Conflict Prevention and Transformation Unit at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA). (Last updated: July 2008.)

Nicole Ball is Senior Fellow at the Center for International Policy in Washington, DC and a Visiting Fellow at Clingendael Institute in The Netherlands. She is also a member of the International Advisory Board of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces. For much of her career, she has worked on issues relating to security and development, with a specific focus on democratic security sector governance and financial management in the security sector. She has edited a handbook on security sector governance for African practitioners written by African security and development specialists (Centre for Democracy and Development, Lagos, 2004) and has worked closely with the Clingendael Institute (Netherlands) and the Netherlands Foreign Ministry to develop and test a security sector institutional assessment tool. She has also co-authored a background paper on accountability in the security sector (with Michael Brzoska, Kees Kingma and Herbert Wulf) for the UNDP Human Development Report 2002, as well as a background paper (with Dylan Hendrickson) that informed the policy statement and policy paper endorsed by OECD development ministers at the OECD Development Assistance Committee's April 2004 High Level Meeting. Other publications include: "Transforming Security Sectors: The IMF and World Bank Approaches" and "The Challenge of Rebuilding War Torn Societies", in "Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict", edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall (USIP Press, 2001). (Last updated: June 2011.)

Karen Ballentine was an independent consultant on the political economy of armed conflict. In 2004–05, she was Senior Consultant for the Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies. From 2000 to 2003, she directed the Economic Agendas in Civil Wars Program at the International Peace Academy. Previously, she has served as a Research Associate for the Commission on the Prevention of Deadly Conflict at the Carnegie Corporation of New York, USA, as rapporteur for the Stockholm Process on the Implementation of Targeted Sanctions, and as a consultant for the UN Global Compact, the Human Security Report, and the Millennium Development Goals. She is co-author (with Jack Snyder) of "Nationalism and the Marketplace of Ideas" (in International Security, 26/2, 1996); and co-editor (with Jake Sherman) of "The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance" (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003), and (with Heiko Nitzschke) of "Profitting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimensions of War" (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005). Karen Ballentine passed away in 2010. (Last updated: June 2011.)

Rudi Ballreich is an independent consultant and trainer in organisational and personnel development. He focuses on processes of change, strategy development and conflict resolution, as well as training in group dynamics, team work, change and conflict management. In 1998, he became a partner at Trigon, a development consultancy firm. In 2002, he co-founded Trigon Munich. He studied arts and pedagogy, and worked as a teacher and in school management for 14 years. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Adam Barbolet is a Senior Programme Officer at International Alert, focusing on the conflict/development nexus. Prior to this, he was peacebuilding advisor for an international NGO in Kathmandu, Nepal. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Prof.  Dr. David Becker teaches Psychology at the Sigmund Freud PrivatUniversität in Berlin. He is co-founder and director of the Office for Psychosocial Issues (OPSI) at the International Academy Berlin for Innovative Education, Psychology and Economy (INA) gGmbH.  He also serves as a consultant to international organizations on trauma and related issues in regions of crisis and conflict, currently especially in the Middle East.(Last updated: November 2015.)

Ozsel Beleli is currently pursuing a post-graduate degree, while also being involved with community development work in Turkey, her home country. She was a Program Associate with the Central & Southern Africa Program at Search for Common Ground, Washington DC, USA. She also has worked in Turkey on a governmental regional development project for vulnerable groups, before joining Catholic Relief Services on their peacebuilding programme in Northern Uganda. She has a BSc in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Christine Bigdon is a political scientist (MA), post-graduate in agricultural and rural development, and PhD candidate at the Department of Political Sciences, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Germany. In 2005, she joined Capacity Building International, Germany (InWent, Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH) where she concentrates on democratisation and administrative reform. Her research interest focuses on decentralisation, local governance and conflict transformation, with special reference to Sri Lanka. Between 2000 and 2003, she worked as Resident Representative of the Colombo Branch Office, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg. (Last updated: March 2006.)

David Bloomfield is Chief Executive of the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation, Ireland. From 2004-2007, he was Director of the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin, Germany and served as co-editor of the "Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation". He was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where he worked throughout the 1980s as director of two reconciliation NGOs, and as a trainer in practical conflict resolution skills. He read for an MA in Peace Studies (1991) and a PhD in Conflict Resolution (1995) at the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK. He has held research and teaching posts at the universities of Harvard, Ulster and Bradford. From 2001 to 2004 he was Director of the Democracy-Building and Conflict Management Programme for the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) in Stockholm. He has written three books on the Northern Irish peace process as well as other articles and chapters on a range of conflict issues. Most recently, he was senior editor for "Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: A Handbook" (IDEA, 2003). (Last updated: Jan 2008.)

Volker Boege PhD is a Senior Fellow at the Australian Center for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Queensland. Current areas of interest include: transboundary water governance, natural resources and violent conflicts, post-conflict peacebuilding, and governance in hybrid political orders, with a regional focus on the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. His involvement with peace and conflict studies goes back more than twenty years, and includes work at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH), the University of Hamburg’s Research Unit on Wars, Armament and Development (FRKE), the Institute for Development and Peace (INEF) at the University of Duisburg, and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), all in Germany. He has a particular interest in conflicts in the Pacific Region, which he has researched for many years. His numerous publications include the recent work "Muschelgeld und Blutdiamanten. Traditionale Konfliktbearbeitung in zeitgenössischen Gewaltkonflikten" (DÜI Hamburg, 2004). (Last updated: Oct 2009.)

Goran Bozicevic is co-founder and current director of Miramida Centar – Regional Peacebuilding Exchange in Groznjan-Grisignana (Istria, Croatia). A natural-science teacher by vocation, he has been active in peacebuilding since 1993, working all across the post-Yugoslav region since 1996. As a trainer in nonviolent conflict transformation, he works in divided communities and with people with different values, beginning with the Volunteer Project Pakrac, which he co-founded and coordinated (1993-1995). In 1996, he co-founded the Centre for Peace Studies in Zagreb, of which he also was the founding director (1996-1999) and where he continues to teach. He has been actively involved in dealing with the past issues since 2002, when he started serving as the representative in the post-Yugoslav countries of Quaker Peace & Social Witness’s Dealing with the Past Programme (2002-2006). (As at: Jan 2009.)

M. Anne Brown PhD is Senior Research Fellow at the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (ACPACS) at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Previously, she worked as a diplomat in the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Her current fields of work concern questions of political community across division. She has published, among others, "Human Rights and the Borders of Suffering: The Promotion of Human Rights in International Politics" (Manchester University Press, 2002) and the edited volume "Security and Development in the Pacific Islands. Social Resilience in Emerging States" (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2007). (As at: Oct 2008.)

Kenneth Bush was a founding Professor of the Conflict Studies Programme at St. Paul University, Ottawa, Canada. He received his PhD in International Relations and Comparative Politics from Cornell University, USA. From 1998-2004, he was a Geneva-based Research Fellow with the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University. He also has worked with UNICEF, OECD DAC, the World Bank, SIDA, DFID, DFAIT, CIDA, IDRC, and a host of NGOs on the challenges of peacebuilding. He served as Special Advisor on Humanitarian Issues to the Canadian Government when it held a seat on the UN Security Council (1998-2000). He has published widely on issues of peacebuilding, identity-based conflict, and bad governance. He is chairman of the Garden Path Campaign, member of the Consultative Group to the Butterfly Garden in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka and member of the International Advisory Board for the Center for Research on Globalization and Democratic Governance, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Kenneth Bush passed away in 2016. (Last updated: August 2016.)

Andy Carl is an independent and internationally recognised expert on conflict resolution and public participation in peace processes. He is the co-founder of Conciliation Resources, where he was the Executive Director for twenty-one years until 2016. Prior to this, he was the first staff member and Programme Director at International Alert. He studied English Literature at the University of California at Berkeley and Anglo- Irish Literature at Trinity College Dublin. He was recently made an Honorary Fellow of Practice at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh. He now serves as an adviser to a number of peacebuilding initiatives and organisations, including the Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative at the Graduate Institute and the Political Settlements Research Programme at the Global Justice Academy, University of Edinburgh. (As at: Nov 2016.)

Marco Carmignani is the Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General (Political) in Guinea-Bissau. Prior to his current assignment, he held senior positions at the United Nations Secretariat in New York, as well as in peacekeeping and political missions in Africa and the Middle East. His experience spans two decades of work in international political and legal affairs. Marco holds a Juris Doctor degree from Rutgers University School of Law, and an M.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Miami. He received a Bachelor’s degree in engineering from the Aeronautical Institute of Technology (Brazil). (As at: Nov 2016.)

Marina Caparini is a Senior Research Fellow with the Department of Security and Conflict Management at the Norwegian Institute of Foreign Affairs (NUPI). She holds a PhD from the the Department of War Studies, King’s College, University of London, UK, and an MA from the University of Calgary, Canada. Previously, she served as Deputy Director of the Security System Reform Program at the International Center for Transitional Justice in New York (2008) and was Senior Fellow at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), where she coordinated working groups on internal security (i.e. police, intelligence, border management) and civil society (2001-2007). Her recent publications include: "Security Sector Reform in the Western Balkans" in the SIPRI Yearbook 2004 (Oxford University Press); "Media, Security and Governance" (Nomos, 2004); "Transforming Police in Central and Eastern Europe: Process and Progress" (Lit Verlag, 2004), co-edited with Otwin Marenin; and "Civil Society and the Future of Security Sector Reform" (in The Future of Security Sector Reform, ed. by Mark Sedra, Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2010). (Last updated: June 2011.)

Fernando Cavalcante currently serves in the Division of Policy, Evaluation and Training (DPET) of the United Nations Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and Field Support. He has also worked in the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS), having provided policy advice and substantive support in implementing the mission’s peacebuilding mandate. Prior to joining the United Nations, Fernando carried out research on a range of issues related to peacekeeping and peacebuilding, including as Marie Curie Research Fellow at the University of Bradford and Guest Researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Fernando holds a PhD in International Politics and Conflict Resolution from the University of Coimbra and a Bachelors’ degree in International Relations from the University of Brasília. (As at: Nov 2016.)

Diana Chigas is co-director of the Reflecting on Peace Practice (RPP) project at CDA Collaborative Learning Projects and professor of the practice of negotiation and conflict resolution at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, USA. At CDA she has been concentrating on RPP’s engagement with the Balkans, especially Kosovo, and led an assessment of the impact of peacebuilding policies and activities on the violence that occurred in 2004 in Kosovo. Prior to joining CDA, Diana Chigas worked as a facilitator, trainer and consultant in negotiation, dialogue and conflict resolution, including on preventive diplomacy in the OSCE, on conflict management in Cyprus, on Track II discussions in El Salvador, in South Africa, Ecuador and Peru and in the Georgia/South Ossetia peace process. (As at: Jan 2009.)

Kevin Clements is Director of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago, New Zealand since 2009. Some of his prior positions include: Foundation Director at the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Queensland, Australia; Secretary General of International Alert, UK; Director of the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR) at George Mason University, Virginia, USA; Head of the Peace Research Centre at the Australian National University, Canberra. In the mid 1980s, he was Director of the Quaker United Nations Office in Geneva, Switzerland and a member of the New Zealand Delegation to the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. He is also a past president of the International Peace Research Association and was the inaugural President of the European Peace Building Liaison Organisation in Brussels, Belgium and a Board Member of the European Centre for Conflict Prevention based in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is currently on the Editorial Boards of Peace Review, Global Change, Peace and Security, and Peace and Policy. He has been an advisor on defence, security and conflict issues to a range of governmental and non-governmental organisations in Australasia, the United States and Europe. His research interests centre around development and peacebuilding, the role of regional and multilateral organisations in conflict prevention, security sector reform, confronting terror non-violently and conflict and peace theory. (Last updated: Jan 2009.)

Tara Cooper is the data research manager at the Human Security Report Project (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada), where she coordinates research activities in the data department and analyses quantitative data on armed conflict and organised violence. Tara is also involved in various activities related to building peace in Africa through local and international NGOs. (As at: Dec 2010.)

Silvia Danielak worked on peace infrastructures and multi-track mediation in the framework of the Mercator Fellowship on International Affairs that she held in 2011/12. She worked with the HD Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue in Geneva, UNDP Kyrgyzstan and UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery in New York. She holds an MA in Security Studies from the Institute for Political Studies in Paris (Sciences Po Paris), and studied at Maastricht University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and Harvard Kennedy School. Since early 2013 she has been working as an advisor at the GIZ African Union Office in Addis Ababa. (As at: April 2014.)

Marwan Darweish is senior lecturer at Coventry University’s Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies (UK). He has wide-ranging experience as an academic, researcher and lecturer, as well as in leading/facilitating training courses on conflict transformation and peace processes. He has extensive experience across the Middle East region and a special interest in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and ongoing peace negotiations. He previously worked as a peace and conflict advisor at Responding to Conflict (RTC), where he took on a range of conflict consultancies including work involving the Horn, East and Central African countries. (As at: May 2010.)

Thomas Diez is Professor of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Tübingen, Germany. He previously taught at the University of Birmingham and was a research fellow at the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute. Among his most recent publications are co-edited volumes on "The European Union and Border Conflicts" (Cambridge UP, 2008), "Cyprus: A Conflict at the Crossroads" (Manchester UP, 2009) and "European Integration Theory" (second edition, Oxford UP, 2009). He received the 2009 Anna Lindh Award for his contribution to the study of European foreign policy. (As at: May 2010.)

Matteo Dressler works as programme assistant in the "Agents of Change for Inclusive Conflict Transformation" programme at Berghof Foundation. Previously he worked for the GIZ in Nicaragua, the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy in Hamburg and as a consultant to the Berghof Foundation.

Before he joined the Berghof Foundation he was working for the GIZ’s Risk Management Office for Afghanistan in Eschborn. Matteo holds a Bachelor’s degree in European studies from Bremen University and a Master’s Degree in Peace and conflict Studies from Uppsala University. Recent publications: (with Véronique Dudouet): "From Power Mediation to Dialogue Facilitation: Assessing the European Union’s Approach to Multi- Track Diplomacy." Whole of Society Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Project, Scoping Study, 2016; (with Stina Lundström): "Assessing EU Support to Governance Reform." Whole of Society Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Project, Scoping Study, 2016. (As at: Nov 2016.) 

Véronique Dudouet works as Programme Director Agents of Change for Inclusive Conflict Transformation for Berghof Foundation, continuing her previous work at Berghof Conflict Research, Berlin, concentrating on the areas of conflict transformation theory, civil society organisations and resistance/liberation movements in transition from war to politics. She holds an MA (2001) and PhD (2005) in Conflict Resolution from the Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University, UK. Her doctoral thesis looked at the limits of mainstream conflict resolution techniques in asymmetric conflicts and their potential complementarity with nonviolent action strategies, based on fieldwork in Israel/Palestine. She has been involved in peace and nonviolent movements since her childhood (which she spent in the Communautés de l’Arche in France), and most recently with the International Solidarity Movement (ISM). Her recent publications include "Post-War Security Transitions" (Routledge, 2012), "From War to Politics: Resistance/Liberation Movements in Transition" (Berghof Report 17, 2009) and "Surviving the Peace: Challenges of War-to-Peace Transitions for Civil Society Organisations" (Berghof Report 16, 2007), an article in the Journal of Peace Research ("Dynamics and factors of transition from armed struggle to nonviolent resistance", JPR May 2013) and chapters in "Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity" (Pluto Press, 2009) and the "International Encyclopedia of Peace" (Oxford University Press, 2009). (Last updated: July 2014.)

Vanessa A. Farr focuses on women's experiences of violent conflict, including the demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) of women combatants after war, the impact on women of prolific small arms and light weapons (SALW), and women’s coalition-building in conflict-torn societies. She has conducted field research on women's involvement in disarmament in Albania and Kosovo, trained women on DDR in the Democratic Republic of Congo and provided input to the reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Greater Great Lakes, Papua New Guinea (Bougainville), the Solomon Islands, Central and South America, Somalia, Uganda, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d'Ivoire. Her work includes the production of a guide to lessons learned about the need for gender awareness in DDR, and she has made recommendations for the improvement of future DDR and micro-disarmament processes conducted by the UN. She has produced a practical "checklist" and seminar materials for the implementation of gender-aware DDR and published several articles in academic journals and in public media and activist forums. She lectures widely on gender mainstreaming in DDR and disarmament in various forums at the UN and at universities and international conferences. She is also a volunteer with the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) Women's Network. She is a graduate of the Women's Studies Programme at York University, Toronto, Canada. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Larissa Fast is Assistant Professor of Conflict Resolution at the Kroc Institute and Department of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, USA. Her book, "Aid in Danger: The Perils and Promise of Humanitarianism" (2014, University of Pennsylvania Press) explores the causes and responses of violence against aid workers. Fast has published in the European Journal of International Relations, Conflict Resolution Quarterly, and Disasters. Her research has been funded by the Swiss Development Corporation, the United States Institute of Peace, and the US Agency for International Development. For more, see kroc.nd.edu/facultystaff/faculty/larissa-fast. (As at: May 2014.)

Christoph Feyen is an expert in organisational development and works as a team leader at the Poverty Impact Monitoring Unit of the German development agency GTZ, Sri Lanka. He also serves as senior advisor to the Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA) in Sri Lanka. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Martina Fischer is Programme Director Southeast Europe at Berghof Foundation in Berlin, Germany, and co-editor of the Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. She has a PhD in Political Science from the Free University Berlin and has published widely on peacebuilding in South Eastern Europe, European peace and security policy, civil-military relations, the role of civil society in peacebuilding, the potential of youth in conflict transformation and linkages between peacebuilding and development strategies. She is a member of the scientific advisory council of the German Peace Research Foundation (DSF), where she also served as member of the board (2001-2011) and vice chair of the board (2006-2011). She frequently advises peace and development agencies – civil society initiatives as well as public sector organisations, such as the German development agency GTZ – on conflict issues. She also has worked as an advisor and consultant for members of the German Parliament, the European Parliament, political parties and ministries, i.e. as a member of the Working Group on Peace and Conflict Studies and the Advisory Council on Civil Conflict Prevention established by the German Federal Foreign Office. Among her most recent publications are the edited volume "Peacebuilding and Civil Society in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ten Years after Dayton" (Lit Verlag, 2nd edition, 2007) and "Strategies for Peace" (co-edited with Volker Rittberger, Barbara Budrich Verlag, 2008). (Last updated: July 2013.)

Simon Fisher is a facilitator, trainer, activist and writer. He has first-hand experience of conflict, development and change in many countries, working with local and international agencies, governments and at the UN. In 1991 he co-founded and became the first director of Responding to Conflict, UK. Since then his priority has been to help develop and sustain active networks of peace workers at global and regional levels, as well as to support specific initiatives for resistance and transformation. He is now working in Zimbabwe. Among his publications are "Working with Conflict: Skills and Strategies for Action" (co-author, RTC/Zed Books, 2000); and "Spirited Living: Waging Conflict, Building Peace" (Quaker Books, 2004). He is a former honorary research fellow at the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, and is currently an associate of the Centre for Development and Emergency Practice (CENDEP) at Oxford Brookes University, both in the UK. He is also a member of the Advisory Committee of the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Conflict Issues. (As at: Jan 2009.)

Ronald J. Fisher (BA (Hon.), MA, Saskatchewan, PhD, Michigan) is a professor and director of the International Peace and Conflict Resolution Program in the School of International Service at American University, Washington DC. His primary interest is interactive conflict resolution, which involves informal third-party interventions in protracted and violent ethnopolitical conflict. His publications include "Social Psychology: An Applied Approach" (St. Martin’s Press, 1982), "The Social Psychology of Intergroup and International Conflict Resolution" (Springer, 1990), "Interactive Conflict Resolution" (Syracuse University Press, 1997) and "Paving the Way: Contributions of Interactive Conflict Resolution to Peacemaking" (Lexington Books, 2005). (As at: Dec 2010.)

Diana Francis is currently the Chair of the Committee for Conflict Transformation Support, UK and a former President of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. As a freelance facilitator, trainer and consultant, she works mainly with people trying to address political/inter-ethnic conflict. She has been working on nonviolent conflict resolution, mediation and reconciliation, in England and worldwide, for more than 40 years. While the bulk of her experience is in the post-communist world (especially the former Yugoslavia and the Caucasus region), she has also worked in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. She is the author of three books: "People, Peace and Power: Conflict Transformation in Action" (Pluto Press, 2002), "Rethinking War and Peace" (Pluto Press, 2004) and the forthcoming "From Peacebuilding to Pacification: A Call to Global Transformation (Pluto Press, 2010). (Last updated: Nov 2009.)

Mauricio García-Durán is a Jesuit priest and researcher on peace processes and social mobilisation for peace in Colombia. He is the executive director of the Center for Research and Popular Education (CINEP) in Bogotá, Colombia. He has also worked on programmes with the displaced population, for CINEP and the Jesuit Refugee Service. He has published four books and more than 40 articles on violence and peace-related issues, and has a BA in Political Sciences, a BA in Theology, an MA in Philosophy, and a PhD in Peace Studies from Bradford University, UK. (As at: May 2010.)

Ed Garcia serves as senior policy advisor at International Alert where he has worked since 1994, in conflict areas in Asia, Latin America and Africa. He was a member of the Commission which drafted the 1987 Philippine Constitution, researcher at the international secretariat of Amnesty International from 1978-80 and founding convenor of Amnesty International-Philippines in 1984. He taught at the University of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila University from 1981 to 1994. He earned his Masters in Philosophy in 1965 at the Loyola House of Studies, Ateneo de Manila University, and did postgraduate studies on Latin America at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) from 1974-78 and on peace studies at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at the Uppsala University in Sweden, and at the University of Oslo, Norway, 1988. Among his publications are the "Filipino Quest Trilogy" (Claretian Publications, 1988-89); "Participative Approaches to Peacemaking in the Philippines" (United Nations University/Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1993); and "A Journey of Hope: Essays on Peace and Politics" (Claretian Publications, 1994). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Canan Gündüz is currently acting CEO at mediatEUr, Brussels. She has previsously worked as Policy Project Officer for International Alert's Business and Conflict programme with particular responsibility for developing research into the role of local business in peacebuilding. She has earned an MSc in Development Studies from the London School of Economics, UK and previously worked for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, New York, USA and the British Department for International Development’s (DFID) Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department, London, UK. (Last updated: July 2013.)

Hans J. Giessmann is executive director of the Berghof Foundation in Berlin. He holds doctorates in philosophy and political science and has been a professor at the University of Hamburg since 2001. He is also co-editor of the Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Berghof Policy Briefs and the Berghof Transitions Series. He has (co-)edited and (co-)authored more than 20 books and numerous articles on issues of peace and security, conflict transformation and civil-military cooperation. A "Handbook on Peace" ("Handbuch Frieden"; co-ed., 2011) and a book on "Security Transition Processes" (co-ed., 2011) are among his latest publications. He is a member of the Advisory Board for Civilian Crisis Prevention at the German Federal Foreign Office and deputy chair of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Terrorism. (Last updated: July 2013.)

Friedrich Glasl teaches Organisation Development and Conflict Management at the University of Salzburg, and is a visiting professor at several universities in Europe, Armenia, Brazil, Georgia, Russia and South Africa. He also works as a business consultant and as a mediator in many kinds of organisations, as well as in political conflicts, civil and international war situations. He studied political sciences, psychology and philosophy at the University of Vienna, where he completed his PhD dissertation in 1967. From then until 1985 he was a senior consultant at the NPI-Institute for Organisation Development in the Netherlands; in 1984 he co-founded "Trigon Consulting" in Austria. He is the author and editor of several standard works on conflict management, leadership and organisation development. (Last updated: July 2008.)

Rachel Goldwyn is the Conflict Programme and Policy Advisor for CARE International, UK. Formerly, she worked at International Alert, UK with a particular focus on conflict sensitivity and Sri Lanka, including the business sector. She has also worked extensively with the pro-democracy movement in Burma. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Albert Gomes-Mugumya is the project coordinator for the Minority Rights and Conflict Prevention Project of the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CECORE) in Uganda. He previously worked for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) in Johannesburg, South Africa, and for Amnesty International in London, UK. He has a bachelor’s degree in Politics, History and Philosophy from Makerere University (Uganda), and a master’s degree in Conflict Resolution from Lancaster University, UK. He is the author of "United Nations Transitional Administrations – An Enigma" (VDM Verlag, 2009). His areas of interest are conflict transformation, peacebuilding and human security. (As at: May 2010.)

Hesta Groenewald is the Conflict Project Coordinator in the Africa Programme at Saferworld, UK. She has worked on issues of conflict sensitivity, the European Union and conflict prevention, security sector reform and community-based policing in Africa and South Eastern Europe. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Hans Gsaenger was Senior Consultant for German Agro Action (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe) and the German development agency GTZ. He also worked for the German Development Institute in Bonn, Germany and had extensive experience in rural development issues in Africa and South-East Asia. Hans Gsaenger passed away in 2010. (Last updated: July 2011.)

Professor Brandon Hamber is Director of the International Conflict Research Institute (INCORE) at Ulster University. He is also a member of the Transitional Justice Institute at the university. He was a Mellon Distinguished Visiting Scholar in the School of Human and Community Development and the African Centre for Migration and Society at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg (2010-2013). See www.brandonhamber.com and @BrandonHamber for more information. (As at: March 2015.)

Wibke Hansen is the Head of the Analysis Unit of Germany's Center for International Peace Operations, where she has worked since 2002. She has an MA in Political Science, English and Sociology from the University of Münster, Germany and received her MA in Peace Studies from Bradford University, UK. She has worked previously for the Robert Bosch Foundation’s Postgraduate Program in International Affairs, the Fern Universitaet Hagen, Germany preparing a new course in Peace Studies and Democracy, and the German Red Cross where she was project coordinator for EU projects in the area of Refugees and Migration. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Cilja Harders has been director of the Center for North African and Middle Eastern Studies at the Otto-Suhr-Institute of Political Science, Free University Berlin since 2007. She gained her PhD in political science from the University of Hamburg and has worked as an assistant professor at the Universities of Münster and Bochum, Germany. Since 1992, she has gained extensive research experience in the Middle East (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, the Gulf and Morocco). Her research focuses on Middle Eastern politics and politics “from below”, foreign policy and Arab-European relations, and gender and violence. Among her recent publications are "Beyond Regionalism? Regional Cooperation, Regionalism and Regionalisation in the Middle East" (co-edited with Matteo Legrenzi; Ashgate, 2008) and the book chapter “Gender and Security in the Mediterranean” (in: Euro-Mediterranean Relations After September 11, edited by Annette Jünemann, Frank Cass, 2004). (As at: Dec 2010.)

Mark Hoffman is Dean of Undergraduate Studies and Lecturer in International Relations at the London School of Economics (LSE), UK. He is also Director of LSE's Conflict Analysis and Development Unit. He is Chair of the Board of Trustees of Conciliation Resources, London, UK. His areas of expertise are: strategic conflict analysis; third party mediation and conflict resolution in protracted international and intranational conflicts; and contemporary international relations theory. He has worked as a consultant for the UN, the UK government and NGOs in Moldova, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Yemen. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Bjoern Hofmann is currently conducting research in Timor-Leste. Following his studies of International Relations at the University of Dresden, he was awarded an M.Litt with distinction in International Security Studies from the University of St. Andrews in 2007. His thesis examined a human security approach to peacebuilding, using Afghanistan as a case study. He was a fellow in the 2007/2008 Postgraduate Programme in International Affairs, run by the Robert Bosch Foundation and the German National Academic Foundation in cooperation with the German Federal Foreign Office. His work on crisis prevention and conflict management has included working for the Enabling State Programme in Nepal, the UNDP Crisis Prevention and Recovery Unit in Timor-Leste and the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies in New Delhi, which encompassed research in Afghanistan. (As at: April 2009.)

Ulrike Hopp-Nishanka has worked extensively on the concept of infrastructures for peace and has just finalized her PhD at the University of Hamburg on the contribution of peace secretariats to conflict transformation in Sri Lanka. Since October 2012, she is Deputy Head of the Afghanistan/Pakistan division at the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in Germany. From 2005-2008 she was Deputy Director of the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies in Sri Lanka. She previously worked at the conflict prevention and peacebuilding desk at BMZ and was an active member of the German interagency working group on peacebuilding and development, FRIENT. (As at: December 2012.)

Vivienne Jabri BSc (London), MA (Kent), PhD (City), is Director of the Centre for International Relations and Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the Department of War Studies, King’s College London. She joined King’s in 2003, having previously lectured at the Universities of St. Andrews and Kent. Her research interests include critical, feminist and poststructural theories of politics and international relations, relating in particular to the study of war and political violence, identity/difference and the politics of security/liberty. Her publications include "Mediating Conflict" (Manchester University Press, 1990), "Discourses on Violence" (Manchester University Press, 1996) and, as co-editor, "Women, Culture and International Relations" (Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colorado, 1999). She has recently published her research in the journals Alternatives, International Relations, and Security Dialogue. Her book "War and the Transformation of Global Politics" is to be published by Palgrave Macmillan. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Uli Jäger is Programme Director of Peace Education and Global Learning at the Berghof Foundation and responsible for its peace education activities. He was co-director of the Institute for Peace Education, Tübingen e.V. (Institut für Friedenspädagogik, Tübingen e.V. [IfT]) in Germany from 1986 to 2012. He is an experienced workshop facilitator, both in Germany and abroad. Since 2006 he has been responsible for the education programme of the international project “Peace Counts on Tour”. Uli is a member of the advisory board of the German Foundation for Peace Research (Deutsche Stiftung Friedensforschung [DSF]) and the advisory board of the Peace Advisory Group for the Protestant Church of Baden-Württemberg (Arbeitskreis “Friedensauftrag der Kirche” der Evangelischen Landeskirche in Württemberg). He has published, edited and co-edited more than 20 books and CD-ROMs. Uli holds an MA in Political Science, Sociology and Educational Science from Tübingen University. (As at: Oct 2014.)

Agneta Johannsen is currently working as an independent consultant through InterWorks, LLC in Madison, WI (USA). She previously worked with the Peacebuilding Partnership Programme at UNITAR, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research in Geneva, Switzerland, and as Deputy to the Director at the WSP Transition Program, a successor to the United Nations' War Torn Societies Project (WSP). (News on this programme can be found at www.wsp-international.org or www.interpeace.org respectively.) Prior to that, she worked on ethnic conflict and refugee issues for a number of years, for, among others, a non-governmental organisation, an OSCE affiliate and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. She is an anthropologist by training. (Last updated: Jan 2008.)

Masood Karokhail MBA, born in 1976 in Kabul, Afghanistan, is deputy director and one of the founding members of The Liaison Office (TLO) in Kabul, Afghanistan and has led its development from a pilot research project in 2003 to an independent organisation with over 100 employees, three regional and four field offices. From 2002 to 2003, he worked with swisspeace in setting up and running the Afghan Civil Society Forum, organising dialogue conferences and civic education outreach campaigns. During the Taliban times (2000-2001), he was the Afghanistan country manager for Unilever. Prior to this he worked in the administration section of the Afghan NGO Development & Humanitarian Services for Afghanistan in Pakistan. In 2005 he was a visiting researcher at the Centre for Development Research (ZEF) in Bonn. (As at: April 2009.)

Nick Killick is Program Advisor with Pacta. He has over 10 years experience in conflict resolution and peace-building, including in South Asia, West and Central Africa and the South Caucasus. He has specific interest and expertise in the role of the private sector in peace-building. Previsouly, he worked as manager of the Peacebuilding Issues Programme at International Alert, UK encompassing the organisation's former teams on Development, Gender, Security and Business, and also as manager of International Alert's Business and Conflict Programme. He has researched and developed projects on promoting a peacebuilding role for the private sector in the South Caucasus, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burundi and the Gulf of Guinea. (Last updated: June 2011.)

Daniela Körppen is a researcher at Berghof Peace Support. She holds an MA in Sociology and Latin American Studies (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) and an MA in Peace and Conflict Research (Otto von Guericke Universitaet, Magdeburg, Germany). She has several years of work experience as a journalist, and is currently preparing her PhD on systemic conflict transformation. (Last updated: Nov 2009.)

Ursula König is a mediator for multi-layered change processes involving issues of reconciliation and trauma. She holds a PhD in chemistry. Ursula is co-founder of the Swiss consultancy company Ximpulse. (As at: May 2017.)

Benedikt Korf is Associate Professor in Political Geography at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Previously, he was teaching development geography at the University of Liverpool, UK. He completed his PhD at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin on the political economy of war in Sri Lanka and has field experiences, both as researcher and as a consultant, in Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. A civil engineer and social geographer by training, he also works as a consultant and trainer for international co-operation agencies, eg, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), with a focus on community development, social integration and participatory planning approaches in conflict situations. His research interests include work on the political economy of war in Sri Lanka (“geographies of violence”), on pastoral resource conflicts (“unmaking the commons”) and on the attempts to uphold order through humanitarian assistance in the face of disaster (“moral geographies of the gift”). Among his recent publication are "Conflict, Space and Institutions: Property Rights and the Political Economy of War in Sri Lanka" (Shaker, 2004) and "Conflict and Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka: Caught in the peace trap?" (with Jonathan Goodhand and Jonathan Spencer; Routledge, 2011). (Last updated: June 2011.)

Ron Kraybill is a Professor in the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding at Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA. He formerly served as Director of Training at the Centre for Conflict Resolution in Cape Town, South Africa, and as Director of the Mennonite Conciliation Service in North America. He holds a PhD in religious studies from the University of Cape Town, South Africa and has published numerous books, essays, and training manuals on mediation, facilitation and conflict transformation. Some of these are available at www.RiverhouseEpress.com. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Louis Kriesberg is Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Maxwell Professor Emeritus of Social Conflict Studies and founding director of the Program on the Analysis and Resolution of Conflicts (1986-1994), all at Syracuse University, USA. In addition to over 125 book chapters and articles, his published books include: "Constructive Conflicts" (1998, 2003, 2007), "International Conflict Resolution" (1992), "Timing the De-Escalation of International Conflicts" (co-ed., 1991), "Intractable Conflicts and Their Transformation" (co-ed., 1989), "Social Conflicts" (1973, 1982), "Social Processes in International Relations" (ed., 1968) and "Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change" (ed., Vols. 1-14, 1978-1992). Most recently, he co-edited "Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding: Moving from Violence to Sustainable Peace" (2009). He lectures, consults and provides training regarding conflict resolution, security issues and peace studies. His current research focuses on alternative contemporary American foreign policies, the transformation of violent conflicts and trends in the fields of peace and conflict resolution studies. (As at: Jan 2009.)

Michelle LeBaron is a tenured Professor at the University of British Columbia's (UBC) law faculty and is Director of the UBC Program on Dispute Resolution based in Vancouver, Canada. She joined the Faculty of Law in 2003, after 12 years of teaching at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution and the Women's Studies program at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, USA. From 1990-1993, she directed the Multiculturalism and Dispute Resolution Project at the University of Victoria, where she worked with members of ethnocultural minority groups to design appropriate conflict resolution processes for intercultural conflicts. She is an experienced educator, researcher and intervenor in environmental and public policy, commercial, organisational and interethnic disputes. She has just completed a new book on conflict resolution across cultures with colleagues from six different countries: "Navigating Cultural Conflict", edited by Michelle LeBaron and Venashri Pillay (Intercultural Press, 2005). She continues to pursue research into creativity, the arts and multiple ways of knowing as resources for bridging cultural differences and is trained as a lawyer and therapist. (Last updated: March 2006.)

John Paul Lederach is professor of international peacebuilding at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, and concurrently a distinguished scholar at Eastern Mennonite University (both USA). He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of Colorado. A scholar-practitioner widely known for his pioneering work on conflict transformation, Lederach is involved in conciliation work in Colombia, the Philippines, Nepal and has worked throughout Latin America and Africa. He has helped design and conduct training programmes in 25 countries across five continents. He has written widely on conflict transformation and peacebuilding. His latest, among numerous publications, is "When Blood and Bones Cry Out: Journeys Through the Soundscape of Healing and Reconciliation", co-authored with Angela Jill Lederach (University of Queensland Press, 2010 and Oxford University Press, 2011). (As at: Dec 2010.)

Manuela Leonhardt is an independent consultant for a range of bilateral organisations and NGOs based in Eschborn, Germany. Trained in social anthropology, she previously held positions with International Alert, UK and the German development agency GTZ. Her particular interests include the strategic planning, monitoring and evaluation of peacebuilding, the role of development and humanitarian assistance in conflict situations and indigenous forms of conflict management. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Peter Lock is working as an independent researcher and Coordinator of the European Association for Research on Transformation (EART e.V.) based in Hamburg, Germany. EART is a Russian-German research network of social scientists currently involved in "Challenge - The changing landscape of European Liberty and Security", an EU-financed international research network. His professional career spans coordinating programmes of the German Voluntary Service in Andean countries; research and teaching at the universities of Hamburg, Hannover, Bremen, Berlin and Kassel, all in Germany; and serving as Research Coordinator at the Berghof Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies (1989-1992). He holds a diploma in rural sociology and economics, and a PhD in international relations, both from the Free University of Berlin, Germany. You can learn more at www.Peter-Lock.de. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Stina Lundström is a project officer for Berghof Foundation’s research project on ‘Avoiding Conflict Release through Inclusive Political Settlements’. She was previously engaged at the Berghof Foundation on the EU-funded research project ‘Cultures of Governance and Conflict Resolution in Europe and India’, and has also served as Project Officer for the Berghof Handbook. Her research focus is on inclusive governance for peace as well as the EU’s peacebuilding strategies and its local impact in the European Neighborhood area. Stina has previous work experience from the Folke Bernadotte Academy, Sweden and as a trainer for UN Women. She holds an MA in European Studies, Lund University, Sweden. (Updated: July 2013.)

Clem McCartney is an independent research consultant on conflict and community issues and has a wide range of experience in Northern Ireland, the Middle East, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. He also briefly served as co-editor and coordinator of the "Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation". Until 2008, he supported the Resource Network for Conflict Studies and Transformation (RNCST) in Sri Lanka, which was run by the Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, Berlin, Germany. (Last updated: Nov 2009.)

Andreas Mehler PhD is the current director of the German Institute of Global and Area Studies' (GIGA) Institute of African Affairs, located in Hamburg, Germany. He previously served as senior researcher for the Conflict Prevention Network in Berlin, Germany, and has published widely on issues of power, governance and security in Africa. His publications include: "Decentralization, Division of Power and Crisis Prevention: A Theoretical Exploration with Reference to Africa" (in "Fragile Peace. State Failure, Violence and Development in Crisis Regions", ed. by Tobias Debiel and Axel Klein, Zed Books, 2002); "Between Ignorance and Intervention. Strategies and Dilemmas of External Actors in Fragile States" (co-authored with Tobias Debiel, Stephan Klingebiel and Ulrich Schneckener, Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden, 2005) and "Security Actors in Liberia and Sierra Leone: Roles, Interactions and Perceptions" (co-authored with Judy Smith-Hoehn, in "Actors of Violence and Alternative Forms of Governance", ed. by Tobias Debiel and Daniel Lambach, Institute for Development and Peace, 2007). He is also co-editor of and a regular contributor to the Africa Yearbook (Brill). (As at: April 2009.)

Sandra Melone is Executive Director of Search for Common Ground, Washington DC, USA. Previously, she established the organisation's Brussels headquarters (formerly the European Centre for Common Ground) and founded the Women's Peace Centre, a project set up by Search for Common Ground in Burundi. Before this, she worked in human rights advocacy with Amnesty International and in international education. She has given numerous workshops in conflict transformation, consensus building, negotiation, and cross-cultural communication, as well as presentations at international gatherings on various aspects of conflict prevention and resolution. She has appeared on CNN, BBC and the Voice of America and has written several articles on conflict transformation. She has a BA from the University of Chicago, USA and an MA from Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, Germany in European and African Studies. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Sebastian Merz is a research officer (data) at the Human Security Report Project (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada). He holds a masters’ degree (Magister Artium) in political science and modern history from the University of Freiburg, Germany. Prior to joining the HSRP, he studied at Uppsala University’s Department for Peace and Conflict Research and worked as an intern for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. (As at: Dec 2010.)

Hugh Miall is Professor of International Relations at the Department of Politics and International Relations of the University of Kent, UK. Until 2005 he was a Reader in Peace and Conflict Research and Director of the Richardson Institute at Lancaster University, UK. He was previously a Research Fellow in the European Programme of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, UK, Research Director of the Oxford Research Group, and a researcher in energy and environmental issues at Earth Resources Research. He has taught at Essex University and the Open University in the UK and has been a visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Conflict Studies at the University of Utrecht, Netherlands. He received his BA in Modern History from Oxford University and his PhD in Politics and International Relations from Lancaster University. His research interests lie in the areas of war and peace, conflict resolution, conflict prevention, and peaceful change. His main area expertise is the wider Europe. His publications include: "The Peacemakers: Peaceful Settlement of Disputes Since 1945" (Macmillan, 1992); "Redefining Europe: New Patterns of Conflict and Cooperation" (Royal Institute of International Affairs/Pinter, 1994); and, together with Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, "Contemporary Conflict Resolution" (Cambridge: Polity, 1999; expanded second edition 2005). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Christopher R. Mitchell is Professor Emeritus of Conflict Analysis and Resolution at George Mason University's Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR) in Fairfax, Virginia, USA. Over the last four decades, he has been involved in numerous Track II interventions into protracted conflicts between, among others, Greek and Turkish Cypriots, Israelis and Palestinians, British and Argentinians as well as diverse Liberian factions. Most recently, he headed ICAR's "Local Zones of Peace" project, which analyses local communities' efforts to establish neutral and secure "zones of peace" in countries such as the Philippines and Columbia. His publications include: "The Structure of International Conflict" (Macmillan, 1981), the "Handbook of Conflict Resolution: The Analytical Problem Solving Approach" (Pinter, 1996) and "Gestures of Conciliation: Factors Contributing to Successful Olive Branches" (Macmillan, 2000). He is currently working on a textbook that will summarise the current state of knowledge in the field of conflict analysis and resolution. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Laurie Nathan is the Director of the Centre for Mediation at the University of Pretoria and Visiting Professor at Cranfield University in the UK. Previsously, he was a Visiting Fellow with the Crisis States Programme at the London School of Economics, UK, and Executive Director of the Centre for Conflict Resolution in Cape Town, South Africa between 1992 and 2003. He served on the Cameron Commission of Inquiry into Arms Trade, established by President Mandela in 1994, and as a part-time advisor to the South African Minister of Defence. He was the drafter of the White Paper on Defence for the Republic of South Africa (1996) and participated in the drafting of other policies and laws relating to defence and security in South Africa. He now also serves as a member of the United Nations Mediation Roster and a member of the United Nations Roster of Security Sector Reform Experts. (Last updated: June 2011.)

Alice Nderitu is currently appointed commissioner in Kenya’s national cohesion and integration commission, which was created as one of the mechansims to address Kenya’s 2008 postelection crisis. While writing the contribution to this Dialogue, she was the director for Education for Social Justice (ESJ) with Fahamu, a non-governmental organisation dedicated to the strengthening of human rights and social justice movements (see www.fahamu.org and www.pambazuka.org/en). She has worked previously as a journalist, a teacher and as programme head on education and media programmes at the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights and the Prisons. A Nairobi University graduate with degrees and diplomas in Human Rights, Management, Literature, Armed Conflict and Peace Studies, she specializes in training on human rights, peace and conflict. She also is experienced in the development of curriculums, information, education and communication materials. She has developed training materials for and trained UN agencies, civil society organisations, law enforcement and military officers at the International Military Peace Support Training College and the Rwanda military academy, the South Sudan Human Rights Commission, the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission as well as Ethiopian, Kenyan, Ugandan and Zimbabwean civil society. She is also a trainer in the University of Pretoria’s Good Governance courses. (As at: May 2010.)

Reina C. Neufeldt is a scholar-practitioner whose work focuses on the intersection of religious and ethnic identity in conflict, as well as peacebuilding and development. Her doctoral dissertation, "Barn Razing: Continuity and Change in Identity during Conflict", explored continuities and changes in one ethno-religious group’s identification across three decade-long periods of conflict, and the relationship between identity and choices made by group leaders during the conflict. As a practitioner, Neufeldt has worked extensively with non-governmental development organisations on peacebuilding, most recently for Catholic Relief Services in Southeast Asia, where she was the CRS Regional Technical Advisor for Peacebuilding, operating in East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, Cambodia and Vietnam. Neufeldt has co-authored "Peacebuilding: A Caritas Training Manual" (2001) and "Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring and Learning Toolkit" (2007). She received her PhD in International Relations from the School of International Service, American University, USA in 2005, and completed an MA in Social Psychology from York University, Canada. She will spend the 2007-2008 academic year as a Visiting Research Fellow at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame, USA. (As at: Aug 2007.)

Heiko Nitzschke currently works for the German Foreign Service. Before that, he was Senior Program Officer for the International Peace Academy's (IPA) program on Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. He has also worked with the World Bank, Transparency International, and Oxfam America. He has MA degrees in public administration and international affairs from the University of Potsdam, Germany, and Columbia University, New York, USA. He is author of several IPA policy reports and journal articles on the political economy of armed conflict, including "Transforming War Economies: Challenges for Peacemaking and Peacebuilding" (IPA, 2003), and (with Karen Ballentine) "Business and Armed Conflict: An Assessment of Issues and Options" (in Die Friedens-Warte, 79/1-2, 2004). He is co-editor (with Karen Ballentine) of "Profitting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimension of Armed Conflict" (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Anna Nolan is Research Officer at the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (ACPACS) at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Her research interests include Indigenous peoples' relationships to land; building dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in relation to land-based conflicts; and peacebuilding in the Asia-Pacific Region. (Last updated: April 2009.)

Thania Paffenholz is a Lecturer in Peace and Development Studies at the Swiss Universities in Berne and Geneva, and runs the policy advisory firm Peacebuilding Research and Advice based in Berne, Switzerland. She received her PhD in international relations from the University of Frankfurt, Germany in 1996. Her research focused on the theory and practice of mediation and peacebuilding in civil wars. After working as a Research Fellow at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt she held a position as a Peacebuilding Officer within the Regional Delegation of the European Commission in Kenya from 1996 to 2000. She then joined the think tank swisspeace in Berne, Switzerland from 2000 to 2003, holding the position of Director of the Center for Peacebuilding (KOFF), and was also Member of the Executive Board of swisspeace. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Borja Paladini Adell is a professional involved in peacebuilding and conflict transformation activities. During the last nine years, he has been working in Colombia for the UNDP programme on conflict sensitive development. He is a UNDP Program Analyst, serving as the head of UNDP’s Offices in Nariño and Cauca in southern Colombia. In this capacity he encourages (and is inspired by) a wide range of local organisations and community-driven peacebuilding initiatives. Building from his practical and field experience, Borja’s research looks critically at concepts such as strategic peacebuilding, peacebuilding infrastructures, peace constituencies and non-violent conflict transformation. Institutions including the UNDP, the United States Institute for Peace, the National University of Colombia, and the Catalan Government have published several pieces of his research and consultancy work. He can be contacted at borjapax@gmail.com or be tweeted at @borjapax. (As at: April 2013.)

Nicola Palmer has worked as a consultant to the Bristish Department for International Development (DFID), London, UK and recently relocated to Afghanistan. She has been living and working in Sri Lanka for the previous four years (2001-2005). After initially undertaking research for the UN Special Rapporteur for violence against women at the International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Colombo, she contributed to an anthropological study of social suffering due to war. Her next position was with the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies' Sri Lanka Office, where she developed and coordinated the work on political economy. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Michelle Parlevliet has been working on the nexus of human rights and peace work for the past 15 years. She served as senior conflict transformation advisor in Nepal for the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, working with its Human Rights and Good Governance Programme and partners, and advising the Embassy of Denmark on its support to the peace process. She previously worked with the Centre for Conflict Resolution in South Africa, the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. She has consulted for the World Bank (Indonesia), the United Nations (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Staff College), the International Council for Human Rights Policy, the Northern Ireland Parades Commission and several other organisations, and served as an independent expert to the UN/Spain MDG Trust Fund in its conflict prevention and peacebuilding thematic window in 2008/2009. Holding an MA in political science (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands) and an MA in international peace studies (University of Notre Dame, USA), she has published widely on transitional justice, conflict prevention, human rights and peacebuilding. She is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Centre on Human Rights in Conflict at the University of East London and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Human Rights Practice. In September 2010, she joined the University of Amsterdam as a researcher to work on a PhD dissertation on the intersection of human rights and conflict transformation in theory and practice. (Updated: Dec 2010.)

Jenny Pearce is Professor of Latin American Politics in Peace Studies, University of Bradford. She is a political scientist who works as an anthropologist, particularly on issues of violence, participation and social change in Latin America, notably in Colombia, Central America and Mexico. She has published widely on these topics. She has used the Latin American experiences in these fields to explore similar issues in the global North, particularly Bradford. Between 2004 and 2014, she was founder and Director of the International Centre for Participation Studies in Bradford and helped build the Programme for a Peaceful City. (As at: Nov 2016.)

Emily Pia is a lecturer at the University of St Andrews, where she teaches Peace and Conflict Studies. She has worked as a researcher on the EU-funded project: Human Rights in Conflicts – The Role of Civil Society. Her academic interests include IR theory, deconstruction, human rights and conflict theory. Currently she is working on Narrative Therapy and Conflict Transformation. (As at: May 2010.)

Oliver Ramsbotham is Honorary Visiting Professor of Conflict Resolution at the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford, UK, which he headed from 1999 to 2002. He has published, together with Hugh Miall and Tom Woodhouse, a seminal study of the conflict resolution field: "Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention, Management and Resolution of Deadly Conflict" (Polity, 1999; second, revised and expanded edition 2005). He has also co-edited with Tom Woodhouse other studies on the relationship between conflict resolution and peacekeeping, including "The Encyclopaedia of International Peacekeeping Operations" (ABC-CLIO, 1999) and "Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution" (Frank Cass, 2000). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Hannah Reich, Dr. (Designate), is a facilitator and researcher in the field of constructive conflict transformation with a focus on culture and conflict. Currently she works at the German Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (ifa) in the department of civil conflict transformation. She wrote her MA thesis on the hymns of an Islamic resistance movement and completed her doctoral studies on interactive theatre in the realm of peacebuilding in post-war Lebanon. (As at: Nov 2012.)

Cordula Reimann works as facilitator, trainer, consultant, and lecturer in the areas of conflict transformation, gender and trauma. Cordula founded the consultancy firm called core and the coaching business called core change.  Previously, she has worked for different international and Swiss governmental agencies and non-governmental organisations like Crisis Management Initiative (CMI), amnesty international in London, the Institute for Multi-track Diplomacy (IMTD) in Washington, DC, GIZ (Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) and the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin. The last eight years she served as head of analysis and impact of peacebuilding for the Centre for Peacebuilding (KOFF) in Bern at the Swiss peace foundation swisspeace. In that capacity, she conducted and led various trainings and evaluations on gender and peacebuilding, conflict sensitivity and the effectiveness and impact of peacebuilding programmes. Cordula has field experiences mainly in South (East) Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and in the Middle East. With a doctorate in „Peace Studies“ on gender, conflict and peacebuilding from the University of Bradford, Cordula was senior lecturer at different European and Swiss universities and visiting professor at the University of Graz, Austria. Her main areas of expertise are conflict sensitivity, strategic conflict analysis, impact assessment, gender, conflict and conflict transformation. Cordula is a trained mediator and has widely published on gender, conflict and peacebuilding and conflict transformation theory. (Last updated: May 2017.)

Dusan Reljic is a Senior Researcher for the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP) in Berlin, Germany. Previously, he was with the European Institute for the Media (EIM) based in Düsseldorf, Germany. Born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, he studied Communications Science, Political Science and Philosophy at the University of Vienna, Austria and wrote his PhD thesis on the "Media policy of the non-aligned states". He also worked for more than a decade for the Yugoslav news agency Tanjug, before becoming Foreign Editor of the Belgrade news magazine Vreme in 1991. He was one of the founders of the Belgrade press agency Beta in 1993 and later became senior editor at Radio Free Europe in Munich, Germany. In his numerous contributions to print and electronic media in Yugoslavia, Germany, Austria and Britain, he concentrates on international relations and security, nationalism and ethnic strife, media performance in situations of tensions and conflict and media developments in Central and Eastern Europe. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Oliver P. Richmond is a Research Professor in the Humanitarian and Conflict Research Institute and the Department of Politics, University of Manchester, UK. He is also International Professor, School of International Studies, Kyung Hee University, Korea. His publications include A Post Liberal Peace (Routledge, 2011), Liberal Peace Transitions (with Jason Franks, Edinburgh University Press, 2009), Peace in International Relations (Routledge, 2008, 2012), and The Transformation of Peace (Palgrave, 2005, 2007). He is the editor of the Palgrave book series Rethinking Conflict Studies.

Norbert Ropers PhD is Director of Berghof Peace Support, Berlin, Germany and was Director of the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies Sri Lanka office from 2001-2008. Berghof Peace Support was established in 2004 with the aim to help generate, develop and implement innovative approaches to peacebuilding based on a systemic understanding of conflict transformation. From 1993 to 2002, he was Director of the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin. He is an experienced facilitator, trainer, consultant and researcher. He has dealt in particular with East-West relations in Europe, security policy, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the impact of transnational relations on political decisions and strategies and methods of conflict resolution. He has published widely on, among others, transnational problems, security policy, the social psychology of international relations, alternative dispute resolution and constructive conflict management. He initiated the "Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation" project in 1998/99. (As at: July 2008.)

Marc Howard Ross is the William Rand Kenan Jr. Professor of Political Science at Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania, USA. He is especially interested in the cross-cultural analysis of culture and conflict and of issues of theory and practice in conflict resolution. He teaches courses in conflict theory, conflict management, and the politics of ethnicity and race. His recent research focuses on the role of culture in ethnic conflict and its management. It draws on conflict surrounding such issues as Loyal Order parades in Northern Ireland, the holy sites in the old city of Jerusalem, language conflicts in Catalonia and Quebec, the confederate battle flag in the US south, and the politics of memory in post-Apartheid South Africa. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Jay Rothman is President of the ARIA Group, Inc., a conflict resolution training and consulting company. He is also Founder and Research Director of the Action Evaluation Research Institute, which promotes systematic goal setting, formative monitoring and participatory evaluation. His publications include "Resolving Identity-Based Conflict in Nations, Organizations and Communities" (Jossey-Bass, 1997), as well as over two dozen articles on identity-based conflict, conflict resolution, and evaluation. He has been a consultant, led workshops and conducted interventions in more than a dozen countries including South Africa, Israel and Palestine, Northern Ireland, and Sri Lanka. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Oussama Safa is General Director of the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, a public policy think tank based in Beirut, Lebanon. Prior to this, he worked in senior positions with the World Economic Forum’s Council of 100 Leaders, Search for Common Ground and the Lebanon Conflict Resolution Network (LCRN). Oussama Safa has extensive experience working with civil society in the MENA region; in 1998 he was founding president of Lebanon’s Anti-Corruption Association, La Fassad. He is a specialist in conflict resolution and has lead and co-lead several workshops on mediation, negotiation and collaborative problem-solving in the Middle East, Africa, the Caucasus, Southeast Asia, the US and Europe. He is a regular faculty member of Summer Institutes on Mediation and Conflict Transformation in the US and Europe and has authored and co-authored several publications and book reviews in Arabic and English on dispute resolution. He holds graduate degrees in conflict resolution and international development from the American University, Washington, DC. (As at: July 2007.)

Gema Santamaría is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Studies at the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México. Her areas of specialization include violence, insecurity, and vigilantism in Mexico and Central America. She holds a PhD in History and Sociology from the New School for Social Research in New York and a Master’s in Gender and Social Policy from the London School of Economics.

She has been a consultant for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and has written specialised reports for the Woodrow Wilson Center and the Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (NOREF). She is the editor, with David Carey Jr., of the volume "Violence and Crime in Latin America: Representations and Politics" (forthcoming, University of Oklahoma Press). (As at: Nov 2016.)

Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu who received his PhD from the London School of Economics in 1986, is Executive Director of the Centre for Policy Alternatives (CPA) – an independent and non-partisan public policy institute focusing on issues of democratic governance and peace through programmes of research and advocacy based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Dr Saravanamuttu is a co-convenor of the Centre for Monitoring Election Violence and a member of the Board of the Sri Lanka Chapter of Transparency International. He has been on the Advisory Committee of the Free Media Movement and served as a member of the Foreign Affairs Study Group of the Foreign Ministry of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, he is currently a member of the Advisory Group to the UN Country Team. He has been quoted widely in the domestic and international media on the political situation in Sri Lanka, has presented papers and been a frequent participant at international conferences on governance and security issues. Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu also serves on the Advisory Board of the Berghof Foundation for Peace Support. (As at: July 2008.)

Beatrix Schmelzle (now Austin) is co-editor and coordinator of the "Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation" and a senior coordinator at Berghof Foundation, Berlin. She previously has worked with various NGOs in the field of conflict management in research, facilitation and organisational development capacities, including: Search for Common Ground, Washington DC, USA, Seeds of Peace, Connecticut, USA, Public Conversations Project, Watertown, USA, International Alert, London, UK and, most recently, Vienna Conflict Management Partners, Austria, of which she is a founding member. She has an MPA from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, Cambridge, USA. She also has an MA degree in Political Science/International Relations from the Free University Berlin, Germany. Her current research interest lies in the creation of learning organisations and reflective practitioners in the field of conflict resolution. Her long-term interest focuses on issues of reconciliation. (Last updated: July 2013.)

Cheyanne Scharbatke-Church is the founder of Besa Consulting, a boutique consulting group dedicated to catalysing strategic change. As a peacebuilding practitioner-scholar, she has extensive experience in conducting evaluations as well as advising agencies on policies and systems to support quality design, monitoring and evaluation. She teaches on evaluation, learning and corruption at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, USA. She has worked for the Reflecting on Peace Practice project, Search for Common Ground and INCORE and consulted with the IDRC, International Center for Transitional Justice, UN Peacebuilding Fund and CARE, among others. She has written numerous publications, including "Designing for Results", co-authored with Mark M. Rogers (Search for Common Ground, 2006). (As at: Dec 2010.)

Stephanie Schell Faucon works for the German development agency GTZ in Sri Lanka, where she is responsible for the project Facilitating Local Initiatives for Conflict Transformation (FLICT). She has lectured for many years in adult education at the University of Cologne, Germany. She is a qualified teacher and also holds an MA degree in Education. Her PhD work at the University of Cologne, Germany examined peace and conflict education in divided societies. She went on several research trips to South Africa before engaging in Sri Lanka. Her special fields of interest are intercultural, peace, and Holocaust education. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Susanne Schmeidl PhD is a visting fellow at the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy at the Australian National University and advisor to The Liaison Office (TLO) in Afghanistan. Prior to this she was a senior research fellow at the Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice and Governance at Griffith University, Australia and worked with swisspeace for nine years in the areas of early warning, conflict prevention and peacebuilding. Between 2002 and 2005 she managed the swisspeace office in Afghanistan and supported civil society development and peacebuilding, mainly through working with two Afghan organisations that she helped set up: the Afghan Civil Society Forum and TLO, coordinating the former between 2002 and 2004. She has published numerous articles, papers and book chapters on Afghanistan, gender, civil society, refugee migration, conflict early warning, peacebuilding and human security. (As at: April 2009.)

Dieter Senghaas is Professor of Peace, Conflict and Development Research at the Institute for Intercultural and International Studies, University of Bremen, Germany. He is one of the founding fathers of the German peace research field. The most recent publications of his eminent career include: "The Clash Within Civilisations. Coming to Terms with Cultural Conflicts" (Routledge, 2001); "Klänge des Friedens. Ein Hörbericht" (Sounds of Peace. A Listener's Report) (Suhrkamp, 2001); and "Zum irdischen Frieden. Erkenntnisse und Vermutungen" (On Perpetual Peace. A Timely Assessment) (Suhrkamp, 2004). He was Chair of the Board of Trustees for the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Studies from 1971, when it was established, to December 2000; and remains its life-time honorary member. (Last updated: Nov 2009.)

Mila Shah is the data research assistant for the Human Security Report Project (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada). She has a bachelors’ degree in political science from the University of British Columbia and is currently completing a Doctor Juris from the University of Victoria, with a focus on human rights law. (As at: Dec 2010.)

Ilana Shapiro is Acting Director and Assistant Professor for the doctoral programme The Psychology of Peace and Prevention of Violence at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA. She holds a doctorate in Conflict Analysis and Resolution from George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA as well as a doctorate in Social Psychology from Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Her interests focus on ethnic conflict, violence prevention and comparative evaluation of conflict intervention processes in US, Central and Eastern European and Middle Eastern communities. She is a founder and former President of the Alliance for Conflict Transformation (ACT), a non-profit organisation dedicated to building peace through innovative research and practice. She has authored "Training for Racial Equity and Inclusion" (Aspen Institute, 2002; available online at www.aspenroundtable.org), has written a chapter in "The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflict" (Praeger, 2006) and published several articles and essays in Negotiation Journal, the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science and the online database www.beyondintractability.org. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Prakash Mani Sharma is one of the founding members and the executive director of the Nepali NGO Pro Public, and heads its Access to Justice Department. Having extensive experience with establishing a variety of infrastructures for peace in Nepal, he is currently advising the government on the topic with the support of ZFD/GIZ. Recently, he helped to set up the Asia-Pacific branch of the Global Alliance for Ministries and Infrastructures for Peace. He is also one of the founding members and an executive member of the Community Mediation Society in Nepal. He has overseen the implementation of the community mediation project by Pro Public in different districts of Nepal since 2003, as well as the dialogue facilitator pools created to facilitate the integration of ex-combatants into the communities. Mr. Sharma holds an LL.M in Comparative Law from India (1990) and an LL.M in Environmental and Natural Resources Law from the USA (1999). He is a senior advocate and council member of the Supreme Court Bar Association in Nepal. Mr. Sharma has been practising public interest law since 1989 and successfully represented the public in various public interest litigation cases brought to the Supreme Court, in order to protect and promote the human rights of disabled persons, children, women, and other socially marginalised groups.

Andrew Sherriff is currently working on European Union-Africa relations; aid effectiveness; conflict, security and development; African peace and security architecture; and EU external action in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific with the Development Policy and International Relations team at the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) in Maastricht, Netherlands. Previously, he was an independent consultant on peace, security and development issues, working in Sarajevo and London. Before that he was the Manager of the Development and Peacebuilding Programme at International Alert, London, UK, where he worked on the African Great Lakes, conflict sensitivity, and the European Union and conflict prevention. (Last updated: Oct 2008.)

Hannes Siebert is currently working on issues related to sustainable peace and constitutional reform as senior advisor for the United Nations in Lebanon and as a non-formal peace envoy (Berghof Foundation) in entities supporting the National Dialogue and the Common Space Initiative. He has worked in many conflict-ridden societies as an international peace process and negotiations advisor and facilitator. In South Africa, he served as Director of the National Peace Secretariat, mandated to implement its 1992 Peace Accord, and subsequently assisted the Special Presidential Task Force focusing on the de-militarisation of youth militia. He advised Sri Lanka’s peace secretariats and helped create the multi-party negotiations forum. In Nepal, he contributed to the drafting of key agreements, helped facilitate talks between the Nepalese Army and the Maoists, assisted in setting up the confidential dialogue process (the Nepal Transition to Peace), and advised the Peace Ministry. With five Nobel Peace Laureates, he initiated the Peace Appeal Foundation in 2000. In 2003 he developed the Peace Tools, a comprehensive set of innovative tools for conflict transformation and negotiations processes. (As at: April 2013.)

Karen P. Simbulan is the Programme Coordinator for Research and Analysis at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (CPCS) in Cambodia. She holds a Master’s in Public Policy (MPP), specialising in International Conflict Management, from the Willy Brandt School of Public Policy, University of Erfurt, Germany. (As at: Nov 2016.)

Dr Olivera Simić is a Senior Lecturer with the Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Australia and a Visiting Professor with UN University for Peace, Costa Rica. Olivera’s research engages with transitional justice, international law, gender and crime from an interdisciplinary perspective. Her latest edited volume, Transitional Justice and Reconciliation: Lessons from the Balkans (with Martina Fischer) has been published by Routledge in November 2015. Her latest monograph Surviving Peace: A Political Memoir has been published by Spinifex in 2014. (Last updated: November 2015.)

Dan Smith is the Secretary General of International Alert, London, UK. Previous positions include: Director of the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway (1993-2001); and Director of the Transnational Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1991-93). He has had fellowships at the Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo (2001), and the Hellenic Foundation for Foreign and European Policy in Athens, Greece (2003). He also has, among others, an honorary position as the Chair of the Board of the London-based Institute for War & Peace Reporting, UK (since 1992). He is the author/co-author of nine books, and editor/co-editor of six others, all of which address peace and conflict issues, including successive editions of "The State of the World Atlas" (new edition to be published late 2008), "The Atlas of War and Peace" (Penguin, revised and updated 2003), and "The State of the Middle East" (University of California Press, revised and updated 2008). He has also written over 100 articles and chapters in anthologies. (Last updated: July 2008.)

Angelika Spelten works as a Senior Researcher at the Institute for Peace and Development (INEF), University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Trained as a political scientist, she has studied the role of development cooperation in the context of political tensions and crises for 15 years. Working at the interface between research, policy advice and project management, she has been involved with a variety of organisations. She is a member of the Working Group on Development and Peace (FriEnt), established by German government organisations and NGOs to develop coherence and cooperation in the fields of development and peacebuilding. Her key areas of interest are early warning and prevention strategies, markets of violence, and conflict transformation processes. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Chris Spies works as Peace and Development Advisor for the Social Cohesion Programme based at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Guyana, South America. He is a specialist in the field of conflict transformation, development and community building processes. He worked as a pastor in a depressed rural community in South Africa in the 1980s. As the Regional Organiser of the Western Cape National Peace Accord Structures, and later as Senior Trainer and Researcher at the Cape Town-based Centre for Conflict Resolution, he was deeply involved in peacebuilding in South Africa in the 1990s. In addition to his work in South Africa, he has gained extensive experience and a proven track record over many years in various countries such as Kenya, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Namibia and Norway, while working independently in his consultancy named Dynamic Stability CC. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Dirk Sprenger is an independent facilitator, consultant and trainer in personal development based in Berlin, Germany. Conflict transformation is one of his main areas of work. He has experience in training participants from the five continents, with a special focus on Latin America. As a consultant, he tailor-makes suitable training processes for governmental and non-governmental organisations. (Last updated: March 2006.)

VS Srikantha is the Director of the Corporate Social Responsibility Project, a part of International Alert’s Business and Conflict programme in Sri Lanka. Coming from a business background, he has specialised in marketing and is a Chartered Marketer (UK) and a Certified Professional Marketer (Asia Pacific). He has held several senior management and consultancy positions in leading business organisations. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Jeannine Suurmond is technical advisor for the Civil Peace Service Program of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (ZFD/GIZ), and supports the peacebuilding and community mediation programmes run by the NGO Pro Public in Kathmandu, Nepal. Together with Pro Public, she advises the National Planning Commission and the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction on Infrastructure for Peace (I4P). Before coming to Nepal, she provided mediation support for track 1 and 2 intrastate peace processes in Asia, Africa and the Pacific as research analyst for Kreddha, the International Peace Council for States, Peoples, and Minorities. Prior to that, she worked as a consultant for the Clingendael Institute and co-founded the Pax Ludens Foundation for Training and Research in Conflict Resolution, both in the Netherlands. She holds an MA in Psychology from the Free University of Amsterdam and various certificates in mediation, conflict transformation, and peacebuilding from institutions including Inmedio, the Transcend Peace University, and the Peace Action Training and Research Institute of Romania (PATRIR).

Ana Glenda Tager Rosado is the Regional Director of Interpeace’s Latin American Office. She did graduate and post-graduate studies in sociology at the University of Pontificia de Salamanca, Spain, and has almost 15 years of experience in managing multi-stakeholder dialogue processes for the consolidation of peace, security sector reform, resilience and peacebuilding and the elaboration of public policy proposals on youth related violence in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá and Belize. In the Central America region she facilitated a process to support the Central America Integration System (SICA) in designing its "Regional Strategy on Prevention, Reduction, and Rehabilitation of Children and Youth at Risk or in Conflict with the Law". She has also been involved in processes of violence reduction in El Salvador and Honduras with actors directly related to violence like youth gangs (maras and pandillas) and sport clubs (barras).

She was also involved in the exploration of initiatives that applied participatory strategies for peacebuilding in Chiapas, Mexico, Peru, Haiti, and currently in Colombia. She has published articles about private security, security sector reform, citizenship security, intelligence, violence prevention, youth gangs, conflict transformation, dialogue and peacebuilding. Her latest articles include: "Transformación de Conflictos y Prevención de la Violencia en el Triángulo Norte de Centroamérica", co-authored with Otto Argueta (Universidad de Jalisco, México, in press). Together with Bernardo Arévalo de Léon she authored: "From Project to Process: POLSEDE, Civil Society and Security Sector Reform in Guatemala", in: David Cortright (ed.) Strengthening Peacebuilding Policy through Civil Society Empowerment (Kroc Institute for International Studies. Notre Dame University 2016); "El Salvador: Negotiating with Gangs", co-authored with Isabel Aguilar Umaña (Accord, Conciliation Resources, 2014); and "Central America: a Peacebuilding Agenda beyond Post-Conflict" (Geneva Peacebuilding Platform 2015). (As at: Nov 2016.)

Georgios Terzis is Chair of the Communications Department at Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Vesalius College, Belgium. He worked for 10 years as a foreign correspondent for Greek Media and for seven years as a course leader for the European Journalism Centre, training journalists from all over the world on EU affairs. In addition, he worked for three years as a Media Programmes Director for Search for Common Ground in Brussels, Belgium and organised Media and Conflict Resolution programmes and training for journalists from Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, the Middle East, Sri Lanka, Turkey and the Roma community. He studied Journalism and Mass Communication in Greece, the UK, USA, Netherlands and Belgium. His main research interests include media and ethnic conflict, political communication, media and globalisation, European communication systems, risk communication, nationalism and national identities. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Gunnar Theissen is a doctoral candidate at the Transitional Justice Project at the Law Faculty of Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. In April 2005 he joined the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva. He has been a member of the task force on "Police Reconstruction and Training in Afghanistan" at the German Federal Foreign Office, starting in 2003, and a member of the German Working Group of Amnesty International's International Justice Project since 2001. He has an MA degree in Political Science from the Free University Berlin and an LL.M. degree in International and Human Rights Law from the University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. (Last updated: March 2006.)

Barbara Unger is Programme Director Latin America with the Berghof Foundation. Previously she was Deputy Director of one of the foundation’s predecessors, Berghof Peace Support. She coordinates several projects and programmes on Dialogue, Mediation and Peace Support Structures for Berghof, and has a special interest in contributing to conflict transformation through better process design and reflective learning. Before joining Berghof, Barbara was a freelance advisor and trainer for peace and conflict, a coordinator of zivik project 2002-2004, and she previously worked with German Development Cooperation. Barbara holds a BA and MA equivalent in Political Science, a BA in Latin American Studies from the Free University of Berlin, and a post-graduate certificate with the German Development Institute. She is a long-term activist and member of Peace Brigades International, a member of the German Platform for Conflict Management, and Board member of the Forum Ziviler Friedensdienst. (As at: April 2013.)

Vincent Verzat is a second year master student at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, in Geneva, Switzerland. He is currently writing his master thesis, entitled “Infrastructures for Peace: Unpacking a Discourse”, articulating the theory of change of I4P practitioners and scholars. After finishing a bachelor in international relations at the University of Geneva, he travelled for a year in South America, doing internships in various conflict transformation NGOs as well as advocating the development and integration of conflict prevention strategies within the climate change policy agenda discussed during the Rio +20 environmental conference. In 2013, Mr. Verzat co-organised an international conference on Infrastructures for Peace for the United Network of Young Peacebuilders and the Global Alliance for Ministries and Infrastructures for Peace. Mr. Verzat is currently being trained in Restorative Systems (cf. Barter) and Nonviolent Communication in order to facilitate conflict transformation processes in the future, along with mobilising youth for peace. (As at: April 2014.)

Laurens J. Visser is a Programme Officer for Research and Analysis at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (CPCS) in Cambodia. He has a PhD in International Relations from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. (As at: Nov 2016.)

Trutz von Trotha, Dr. phil., holds a chair of sociology at the University of Siegen, Germany. For over twenty years he has been a contributor on issues of power, violence, colonial and postcolonial rule and state- or society-building. Among his most recent publications in the context of conflict transformation and the failing states debate are: "Essays on the Reconstruction of Societies after War" (co-edited with Marie-Claire Foblet, Hart, 2004); "History, the 'Kalashnikov Syndrome' and Conflict Resolution between the Global and the Local – Some Sociological Remarks" (in "Conflicts and Conflict Resolution in Middle Eastern Societies – Between Tradition and Modernity", ed. by Hans-Joerg Albrecht et al., Duncker-Humblot, 2006) and "Le Programme Mali Nord ou Variantes de la Para-étatisation" (in "La Quête Anthropologique du Droit", ed. by Christoph Eberhardt et al., Karthala, 2006). (As at: April 2009.)

Nenad Vukosavljevic has worked with the Centre for Nonviolent Action (CNA) since its foundation in 1997 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. CNA is registered as a branch office of KURVE Wustrow. Being a conscientious objector since 1986, he lived in exile for 14 years, in London, Hamburg and Sarajevo, returning to his hometown Belgrade in 2002. He is author of a Manual for Training in Nonviolent Conflict Transformation ("Nenasilje?" 2000) and has produced several documentary films on dealing with the past in the region of former Yugoslavia: “Traces“ (2004); “It cannot last forever” (2006); “All wish to cast a stone” (2006); "Not a bird to be heard" (2007). More information can be found at www.nenasilje.org. (Last updated: Nov 2009.)

Martina Weitsch is a representative and head of office at the Quaker Council for European Affairs (QCEA), a Quaker NGO based in Brussels. She has held this position since 2002. She has been a Quaker all her life and her current role at QCEA allows her to bring her lifelong experience to her political advocacy on peace issues. Martina Weitsch holds a diploma in Management Studies from Huddersfield Polytechnic, UK (1989) and worked in the UK within the social housing field for many years before moving to Brussels to take up her current role. Publications include "Peace and Peacebuilding – Some European Perspectives" (QCEA 2007) and "People are Party to Building Peace" (QCEA/EPLO 2008). (As at: Jan 2009.)

Dr Undine Whande, born in Germany, has lived and worked continuously in Southern Africa since the mid-1990s. She holds a PhD in Social Anthropology from the University of Cape Town. In the frequently very challenging context of political and social transition in post-1994 South Africa, she worked as a conflict mediator, coach and facilitator in social change processes, including the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Healing of Memories project. (Last updated: November 2015.)

Oliver Wils is Programme Director Middle East and North Africa at Berghof Foundation and responsible for peace support projects. Previously, he was CEO of Berghof Peace Support (BPS), Berlin. He plays a central coordinating role for the international team of conflict transformation experts that works alongside Berghof staff. He also managed the BPS Resistance and Liberation Movements in Transition programme and co-edited the Berghof Policy Briefs series. In addition, he takes a special interest in the Peace Envoy programme and project development in the Middle East. Prior to his current post, he worked for the Berghof Research Center (now BCR) and has been an independent consultant in the field of development cooperation. Oliver Wils is a political scientist with a specialisation in the Middle East, where he lived for some time. He has an MA and a PhD from the Free University Berlin. (Last updated: July 2013.)

Tom Woodhouse is Professor of Conflict Resolution in the Department of Peace Studies at Bradford University, UK. He also founded the department's Centre for Conflict Resolution in 1990 and was its first director. Together with Hugh Miall and Oliver Ramsbotham, he has published a major study of the conflict resolution field: "Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention, Management and Resolution of Deadly Conflict" (Polity, 1999; second, revised and expanded edition 2005). He has also co-edited (with Oliver Ramsbotham) other studies on the relationship between conflict resolution and peacekeeping, including "The Encyclopaedia of International Peacekeeping Operations" (ABC-CLIO, 1999) and "Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution" (Frank Cass, 2000). (Last updated: March 2006.)

Peter Woodrow is co-director of the Reflecting on Peace Practice (RPP) project at CDA Collaborative Learning Projects, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. In this position, he has been concentrating on engagement with governments and NGOs in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, particularly Burundi, Rwanda and the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. He is an experienced mediator, facilitator, trainer and consultant, skilled in negotiation, collaborative problem-solving and dispute resolution systems design. He has also developed and implemented international programmes in consensus-building, problem-solving, decision-making and inter-ethnic conflict resolution in Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. (As at: Jan 2009.)

Susan L. Woodward is professor of political science in the PhD programme of The Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY), USA. She received her PhD from Princeton University in 1975; has taught at Mount Holyoke and Williams Colleges and Northwestern and Yale Universities; was senior fellow at The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (1990-1999); and, in 1994, head of the Analysis and Assessment Mission of UNPROFOR. She has written extensively on Yugoslav political economy (including "Socialist Unemployment: the Political Economy of Yugoslavia 1945-1990", Princeton University Press, 1995), the Balkan wars (including "Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War", Brookings Institution Press, 1995) and now on state failure, international security and post-conflict state-building. (As at: April 2009.)

Herbert Wulf is a retired professor and the former director of the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC). He now serves as an adjunct senior researcher at the Institute of Peace and Development, University of Duisburg/Essen, Germany, and is a senior research fellow at BICC. His most recent publications include "Military Security between Rearmament, Democratisation and Privatisation" in Global Trends 2010 – Peace, Development, Environment (Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden, 2009), and the books "Zerstörter Irak – Zukunft des Irak?" [Destroyed Iraq – The Future of Iraq?] (co-edited with Johannes M. Becker, Lit Verlag, 2008) and "Afghanistan: Ein Krieg in der Sackgasse" [Afghanistan: A Misguided War] (co-edited with J. M. Becker, Lit Verlag, 2010). (Updated: Dec 2010.)

Luc Zandvliet is currently the director of Triple R Alliance, a small collective of experts working with companies operating in frontier markets on strategic stakeholder engagement approaches. Until 2010, he was director of the Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) at CDA Collaborative Learning Projects. Through a process of field assessments, training and consultations, CEP collaborates with companies to help them ensure they have positive rather than negative impacts on the communities where they operate. As part of this approach, CEP works with companies to develop and implement practical options to build positive, constructive relationships with the communities where they work. Since 2000, over 60 international companies operating in Africa, Asia, Australia and North and South America – mostly from the extractive industries – have participated in the project. (Updated: Dec 2010.)

Dr Andrea Zemskov-Züge is a project officer for the Berghof Foundation Caucasus Programme. A historian, she has worked since 2000 as a trainer, consultant and facilitator in the field of conflict resolution in Georgia, Abkhazia, Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany and Bosnia. Zemskov-Züge also conducts research on Soviet and Eastern European history. In her training, consultancy and research activities, she specialises in the role of memory and history policy in conflict societies and post-war societies, preferably using methods of oral history. In 2012 she published “Zwischen politischen Strukturen und Zeitzeugenschaft” on Soviet history policies during and after the Leningrad siege. Zemskov-Züge studied at the Free University of Berlin and the St. Petersburg State University, Russia. She holds a PhD from the University of Konstanz, Germany. (Last updated: November 2015.)

Lada Zimina is currently a conflict advisor at Care International UK, and has previously worked at Skillshare International and International Alert, UK. She is a practitioner from Kazakhstan, with experience of working regionally in Central Asia and the Caucasus, and on a wider international scale. She has focused on critical issues in peacebuilding such as security and small arms control, contested histories, business interests and resource management policies, and peace and conflict education. She is especially interested in building the capacity of civil society to deal with conflict, and in exploring the linkages between development and conflict transformation. Lada Zimina is a former Chevening scholar. (As at: Jan 2009.)